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Integration Traditional Technologies

With the ever increasing rise in the production of new technologies, educators run the risk of discarding the traditional features which have been tried and proven. It is the view of many scholars and academics that these older technologies have a more significant influence on intellectual and cognitive development than the faster and more dynamic multi-median features of modern technologies.

One of the most loved items of the traditional technologies is the overhead projector. The simple "light box which allows for projection of images" has been around as far back as one can remember, and has always been used by educators and presenters from all walks of life. Other technologies which enjoy similar popularity are the Filmstrip and the Slide Projectors.

The following article demonstrates the use of some traditional technologies as teaching aids in a lesson or presentations, and is the first in a series of presentations on the use of the traditional technologies designed for adult educators.


Lesson Topic: How to use a overhead projector

Audience: Adults 18 years and older - or persons making presentations of whatever kind.

Objective: At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1. Identify the features of a overhead projector.
2. Practice the principles that make for a good presentation.
3. Apply showmanship tips while using the overhead projector.
4. Know the advantages and limitations of the overhead projector.

Instructional Aids:
Overhead projector, transparencies (blank and pre-packaged), transparency markers, lettering and shapes templates, grid sample, area for projecting images, e.g. screen or white surface.


The Overhead Projector.

The overhead projector (OHP) is a very simple piece of equipment. It is a box with a stage or platen on the top surface. Light is provided by a lamp located inside the box which is condensed by a special lens, called a fresnel. This light is reflected and passes through a transparency placed on top of the stage. The lens and mirror mounted on the top of the arm above the box and can be manipulated by the presenter. Projectors can be described as transmissive or reflective type.

What are the some of advantages of using the overhead Projector as an instructional aid?

The overhead projector can be used in a room that normal lighting. The brightness of the lamp use in the projector radiates enough light to satisfy required standard.

Contact with the audience remains constant as the presentation is made from the front of a well lit room.

The projector is easy to use, portable and lightweight. Technical know-how is not a requirement for its operation.

Various kinds of material can be projected from the projectors screen or stage. These include the silhouetted images of objects and opaque material.

How are presentations effectively made?

Direct the viewers attention to the presentation by pointing to the stage of the projector, never to the projected area or screen. Lay the pointer on the stage.

Limit the number of visual images in any one transparency. Always use square shaped screen on which to project the images.

Each transparency should be confined to a single major concept. The key to writing good visual aid is to keep it simple. Recommend 5 or 6 lines on type and words per line.

The projected images can be manipulated while the presentation is being made. For example details can be added to the transparencies while the presentation develops.

Use transparency backing sheet or other opaque material to mask areas of the transparency. This enables you to reveal sections of the visual in a plan and gradual manner.

Whenever pre-recorded narrations are used avoid talking or explaining over the sound of the recording. Turn off the sound if you have to elaborate on points.

Turn off the light of the projector when changing transparencies. This saves your audience from visual shocks and eye fatigue caused by the impact of bright light when transparency is changed and aids retention.

Avoid shocking the audience with the bright reflection on the screen by using overlays. Slide each film over each other to develop sequence.

A good showmanship approach is that of writing your notes for the presentation on the frame of the transparency. This will give the audience the impression that the presentation is well organized and keeps the presenter in contact with the audience.

An absolute importance to the quality your presentation, is to avoid introducing your transparency with the words "This is a ..." or "This transparency or slide is...". Develop an approach to relating to the subject being presented by avoiding cliches.

Presenters can prepare their own transparencies. The presenter need not be a graphic artist to create good visuals. Lettering stencils are available commercially to be used as guides and photocopying machines can produce transparencies from an original document or file.


 A filmstrip projector



A filmstrip is a roll of 35mm transparent film storing a series of graphic presentations which are exposed one frame at a time. Some filmstrips are designed with synchronized audio features.


 What are the some advantages of using the Filmstrip projector?

Certain content are available only in the filmstrip format, and therefore can only be used by that machine.

The projector is very easy to handle. Special care has to be taken when handling the filmstrip.

The sequential order of the film can enrich the presentation. The order in which the frames are presented is not manipulative as a slide projector would be.

The cost of the canned distributed filmstrips cost less per frame than a set of slides or transparencies.

The content of the filmstrip is often times only available and copyrighted in that format.

The control is of further advantage in that the pace at which the filmstrip is viewed is dependent on the learning needs of the audience. The self paced instruction allows for independent study.

The presenter is able to create unique and special narrative or script for the silent filmstrip.



A slide projector uses a slide which is by standard size 2 inches square, as measured on the other parameters of the frame. The images are stored on a 35mm setting and are mounted in a 2-by-2-inch frame.



 What are some of the advantages of using a slide projector?

The sequence of the presentation can be manipulated to create as many approaches as desired by the presenter.

Presenters are capable of creating unique, personalized slide collection designed to match objectives. The collection can be updated as the presenter see fit by simply removing a slide with old data and replacing it with a slide with new data. This makes it possible for the content to be very current.

A slide projector presentation can be manipulated by remote command device from a different point in the room. The presenter need not remain at the front of the room, but could take the opportunity to interact more closely and mingle with the audience. Wireless remote control devices are also available.

Slides can be use in self-paced instruction. They can be integrated into individualized instruction programs.